"Outcome-based education means starting with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organising the curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure that this learning ultimately happens." Spady, 1994)
  1. Starting with clarifying the outcomes that students are to achieve.
  2. Then organising the curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Learning outcomes encompass
a) What students should know / understand.
b) What students should be able to do.
c) What students should be like.

SOLO Taxonomy:
The model consists of 5 levels of understanding

  • Pre-structural - The task is not attacked appropriately; the student hasn’t really understood the point and uses too simple a way of going about it.
  • Uni-structural - The students response only focus on one relevant aspect eg. Identify, Follow simple procedure.
  • Multi-structural - The students response focus on several relevant aspects but they are treated independently and additively. Assessment of this level is primarily quantitative eg. Combine, Enumerate, Describe, List & Perform serial skills.
  • Relational - The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent whole. This level is what is normally meant by an adequate understanding of some topic. eg. Analyse, Apply, Argue, Compare/Contrast, Explain causes, Relate & Justify.
  • Extended abstract - The previous integrated whole may be conceptualised at a higher level of abstraction and generalised to a new topic or area eg. Create, Formulate, Generate, Hypothesise, Reflect & Theorize.

Curriculum Mapping (for Outcome Based Learning)
• Provides an OVERVIEW of the extent to which each programme outcome is taught and assessed.
• Allows gaps (e.g. under-addressed outcomes) and other problems (e.g. over-represented outcomes) to be identified and adjustments made.

A Change Needed:
Old Approach: A teacher’s perspective - input from teacher and what the teacher plans to do. Planning with reference to what content to teach.
New Approach: A student’s perspective, concerning output of students & what the students will do.